ReadChinese

How to read Chinese words in today’s news and school books

[author is Jim Found © 2018. OK to print with this citation]

(This activity can be done in groups of two to four, taking turns reading the sections aloud.)

Can you read words like “qiu” and “xue?” You will soon!

Today’s system for writing Chinese sounds with English letters is called pinyin (that’s pronounced peen-een, with a silent y).  Here’s how it works:

About the letter X

Say the word “see” gently as you read this word: “xi.” This example shows that “x” sounds like “s,” and “i” is pronounced “ee.” On the list below, please speak the sound at the left, and then find the matching pinyin spelling at the right, and say it the same way:

Bee                  yi (remember, y before i is silent)

Seen                bi

Jean                di

D                      xin

E                      jin

Pronounce “ping” like you would in our words ping pong.  Please read this name in pinyin: Xi Jin Ping.  (did you say “see jeen ping?”). It is the name of the president of China.

About ie

Please say “yet.” Now leave off the t, and it will sound like “yeh.”  Put “see” in front of it: “see-yeh.”  That sound is spelled “xie.” If you say it twice, it means “thank you.”  Please say aloud and match:

Bee-yeh           mie

P-yeh               tie

Mee-yeh          bie

C-yeh               pie

T-yeh               xie

About the letter a:

In Pinyin, the letter “a” is usually pronounced “ah,” as in father. The word “ma” means mother, and the word “ba” means 8. If you put “a” after “xi” you get “see-ah.”  That is “xia,” an early dynasty of China, about three thousand years ago. The “a” of father is also in the word “san” (which means 3) and “pang” (fat). (Note that the s sound is sometimes written as an s, and sometimes as an x, which is more gentle.)

About the combination zh

The sound of the name “Joe” would be written “Zhou,” the next dynasty of China, about 2500 years ago. So “zh” sounds like “J,” and “ou” sounds like “oh.”  The letter “u” when it is not with another vowel sounds like “oo.”  Please match:

Joo                   jiang

Do                    Zhuan

jee-ang            sou

Joo-on             du

So                     zhu

(the sound J is sometimes written as zh, sometimes as j)

The letter Q

Say “cheese;” now say it without the “s.” That sound is written in pinyin as “qi.”  So “q” stands for our sound “ch.” Please match:

Cheen              zhou

Jo                     qie

Chee-ah           xin

Seen                qin

chee-yeh         qia

Qin (pronounced cheen) was the dynasty in China two hundred years before Christ. The English word “China” comes from that dynasty’s name. Qing (ching) was the most recent dynasty of China. Qi is the sound for number 7. (our sound ch is sometimes spelled with a q, and sometimes with a ch, as in cha, which means tea)

The combination -ian

When the combination “an” has an “i” in front of it, the “a” does not sound like the “a” of “father.” Instead, it sounds like the “e” in “en.” So, BN is written in pinyin as “bian.”  Please match:

DN                   mian (means noodles)

GN                   qian (means money)

Yen                  dian

chee-enn        yan

Me-N               jian

The letter u

U in pinyin sounds like oo. Please match:

Joo-an             chuang

Chew on          duan

Chwang           zhu

Dew on            chuan

Joo                    zhuan

The umlaut sound for u

Now here’s the fun one. Put your lips like “oo,” and while holding them there, try to say “ee.” This sound is called an umlaut. In German, it is written with two dots over the u, like this: ü.
Try these Chinese words: lü,  nü
.
The next set of words uses the umlaut sound, but the two dots are not written.
ju, qu, xu.  In the word “yu,” the y is silent, so all you hear is the umlaut sound.

When these words are followed by “an,” the “an” is pronounced like “en.”  Try:

Juan, quan, xuan, yuan (the y is silent). Yuan is the name of the Chinese dynasty around the year 1300, and also the word for dollar. Please say and match:

jü enn               yu (y is silent; means fish)

qü                      lue

ja                         juan

lü-yeh                zha

ü                         qu

Unexpected sounds

E is pronounced like “uh.” Try  de, te, ne, le. He (sounds like huh) means river.

The letter “o” sounds like “awe.” It is usually preceded by a “u.” Doo-awe is spelled duo. Goo-awe is spelled “guo.” Guo is the word for “country.” France is fa guo.   When there is no consonant in front of the “uo,”  a letter “w” replaces the letter “u.” The pinyin spelling “Wo” is pronounced “waw.” This is the word for one’s self.

If you want a “long” o, as in “owe,” you spell it as “ou.” For example, a female deer, “doe,” would be spelled “dou.” English “yoyo” would be spelled you you.

When “r” is at the beginning of a word, it sounds like the s in measure. Try saying these Chinese words that start with that sound: re, ren. Some people in China pronounce this sound so lightly that it sounds like an r.

The combination –”ong” is not an English sound. It is between ong (with a long o, as in own) and awng.  “Zhong” means “central.” The word for China is “Zhong-guo.”

Matching:

Duh                   duo

twaw                 dong

Dee                     de

Doe + ng             di

doo-awe             tuo

(Four of the words that rhyme with duo are abbreviations; they leave out the u. bo sounds like buo, po sounds like puo, mo sounds like muo, and fo sounds like fuo.)

VOWEL COMBINATIONS

• In English, the sound of “eye” is spelled in pinyin as “ai.” English tye-dye in pinyin would be spelled Tai Dai.

• In English, the “ei” in eight, rhymes with day. Pinyin also uses “ei” for that sound. English Bay would be spelled in pinyin as “Bei.”  You need this sound to say the capital of China.  It is Bei jing. Bei means north, and jing means capital.

• The English sound “ow” is spelled in Pinyin as “ao” English “cow” would be spelled “kao.” English “pow” would be spelled “pao.”  You need the “ao” sound to say “hi.” Saying “hi” sounds like “nee how.” In pinyin spelling, that is “ni hao.” Ni means you, and hao means good, so you are saying “you good,” by which you mean “I hope you are well.”

Matching:

Pay                 xiao

Dow                 dou

Doe                  pai

Pie                   dao

see-ow            pei

UNUSUAL BEGINNINGS

Please say the word “fatso,” then say it again without saying the fa. It is easy for us to say “ts,” but we are not used to saying it at the beginning of a word. The “ts” sound is spelled as a “c.”

Pinyin “can” would sound like saying “puts on” without saying the first 2 letters.

Try to say these Chinese words starting with a “ts” sound:” ca, cai.

The sound “dz” is spelled in pinyin as “z.” Please match:

dzo                ce

tson               zai

tsa                  can

tsuh                ca

dz + eye         zou

You need z to say goodbye. Saying goodbye wold be written with English sounds as “dzeye (rhymes with eye) G.N.”  The pinyin spelling is “zai jian.” Zai means again, and jian means see, so you are saying “see you again.”

Contractions

• Say li (lee) and add ou (oh) and you get the sound of the English word “Leo,” which in PinYin is Li plus Ou. Make a contraction by taking the letter “o” out of the “ou” combination. The PinYin spelling for English “Leo” is Liu. This is the sound of number 6.  Jiu is number 9.

• Take gu (sounds like goo) and add ei (sounds like ay), and you get guay. Take out the “e” and it is written “gui.” Pinyin “dui” sounds like “dew-A.”

• Take gu (goo) and add en (pronounced un). The result sounds like goo-uhn. Take out the e, and the contraction is written gun. Pinyin “dun” sounds like “dew-uhn.”

• Take ju (pronounced jü) and add in (pronounced een). The result is jüeen and is contracted to jun.

Matching:

Kway               mai

Geo                 sun

My                   jiu

Poe                  kui

chü-een          pot

SIlent i

After certain letters, the i is silent, and you just say the letter, without a vowel. In some, it sounds like you are saying an “r” after the letter. For example:

• Chi sounds like Chirp, without the p.
• Zhi sounds like the first half of German
• Shi sounds like sher. It is the sound for number 10.
• ri sounds like “measure” without the me, but often pronounced more lightly so it sounds like “er”

In the next group, there is no “r” sound. There is no vowel at all.

• Ci sounds like “ts,” and zi sounds like “dz.”
• si sounds like a sizzle: sz. That’s the sound of number 4.

You have finished learning all the Chinese sounds!

Here’s a Review Chart.  From now on, when you see a Chinese word in a newspaper or book, compare with  others to see if you agree on how to pronounce it.

What about those two words at the beginning? Try to match the pinyin at the left with the sounds at the right:

qiu                       sü-yen
xue                      sü-yeh
xuan                   chü-een
qun                     chee-yo

But you need to know about Combining words

Many Chinese words are made of two syllables. You need to know where the second syllable starts. The main thing to know is that Chinese words do not end with consonants (except for n and ng), so if you come to a consonant, you know that a new syllable has started.

For example, the combination “beiling” could not be beil plus ing, because a Chinese syllable cannot end with an L.  So it must be bei plus ling.

If it is not obvious, the writer will put an apostrophe between syllables. For example, a famous city in China is Xian. But is it a one syllable word, pronounced see-on, or is it made up of the two words “see” and “on?” In this case, it is two words, so it should be written this way: xi’an.

End of Chinese Sounds Introduction.

(A review of each letter of the alphabet is at the bottom of this page.)//

Supplementary activities

Using Google Translate

In Google Translate, set the text box to the left on English, and the one to the right on Chinese (simplified and traditional will work equally well).  Type an English word at the left, and the Chinese characters will appear at the right, and under the text box you will see the spelling in Chinese. When you press on the speaker icon, you can hear the pronunciation.  As an example, to hear the –ong sound, which is not found in English, type in the word “dinosaur.” The Chinese spelling is “kong long,” which would demonstrate that -ong sound. That sound is also found in the Chinese words for China (zhong guo) and for farmer (nong ren).

The pinyin spellings in Google translate include marks above each vowel. These indicate tones.

Introduction to the tones:

In spoken Chinese the meaning of a word changes depending on whether your voice goes up or down. There are four possibilities, and these are called the four tones.

It is not necessary to know the tones in order to read the newspaper or school books, since the tones are not included, but it would be necessary if you want to use a tourist guidebook.

First tone is written as a straight line above a vowel. Your voice stays level at a relatively high pitch, going neither up nor down. In the English name “Popeye,” we natural say the first syllable in first tone. Numbers 1 (yi, pronounced “ee”), 3 (san), 7 (qi, pronounced chee) , and 8 (ba) are all in first tone.

Second tone is indicated by a rising line drawn above a vowel. It looks like an accent mark. Your voice rises as though to ask a question, as in the last word of “Would you like some tea?” A rising sound is called “second tone.” The word for tea (cha) is in second tone, and so is the Number 10 (sher)

Fourth tone is indicated by a falling accent mark. Your voice falls as though making a definitive statement, as in the last word of “this is the life.” Number 2 (er, pronounced “are”) and 6 (liu, pronounced lee-oh) are in fourth tone.

Third tone is drawn as a u-shape. Your voice goes down and then up. Numbers 5 (wu, pronounced “oo,”) and 9 (jiu, pronounced “G.O.) are in third tone.

You can learn the tones easily by listening to the words you type into Google translate.

Counting.

Say these two letters of the alphabet: E.R. You have just counted to 2.
You already know 1, the sound “ee,” is spelled yi, with a silent y.  It is first tone.

Number 2 sounds like English “are,” and is written “er.” It is second tone.

Number 3 is san. (remember, the a is the a found in father.) It is first tone.

Number 4 is the sizzle, spelled si. It is fourth tone.

Number 5 is spelled wu, but it is a silent w, so it sounds like oo. It is third tone.

Number 6 is the sound Leo, spelled liu. It is third tone.

Number 7 is chee, spelled qi. It is first tone.

Number 8 is ba. It is first tone.

Number 9 sounds like jee-oh, and is spelled jiu.
(abbreviated from ji and ou). It is third tone.

Number 10 sounds like sher, and is spelled shi. It is third tone.

For a video of counting to 10, with correct sounds and tones, go to youtube and search for “learn chinese with emma numbers.” Here is a direct link:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WoKI-FUQRGw

For a video to learn basic words like hello, thank you, and goodbye in correct tones, go to: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M2WN_AH_4bo&t=56s

click here for More about tones:

 

Using Chinese: the Chinese provinces

It’s neat to find the meanings of the names of the provinces. Each province name is made of two or three Chinese characters. In Pinyin, these sounds are joined together with no spaces in between. Search online for “Chinese Provinces in pinyin.” Many maps will appear; choose one that is easy to read. Then try to find the meaning of each province, using the code below. For example, near the middle of China is a province named Henan. From the list below, you will discover that He means river and nan means south. This province gets its name because it is south of the Yellow River. Here is the entire list:

An          Peace
Bei         North
Chang    Long
Chuan   River
Dong      East
Fu           Blessing
Gan        Sweet
Guang   Vast
Gui         Valued (pronounced “gway.”)
Hai         Sea
He          River
Hei         Black
Hu          Lake
Huang   Yellow
Hui         Emblem pronounced hway)
Jiang      Border (used in xinjiang), or
…………….river, used in the others
Jian        Establish
ji             Lucky
Jing        Capital
Lin         Forest
Long      Dragon
Liao       Name of a dynasty from 907 to 1125
Nan       South
Nei        Inner
Ning     Peaceful
Meng gu   Mongolia
Qing     Green
Shan     Mountain
Shaan   Revive (see note below this list)
Si           Four
Su          Revive (used in Jiangsu), or
……………respect (used in Gansu)
Tai         Terraced
Wan       Bay
Yun        Cloud (pronounced ü-een)
Xin         New
Xi           West
Xia         name of a dynasty before 1600 BC
Zang     Tibetan (pronounced dzang)
Zhe        short for zhejiang, the name of a province
Zhou     administrative district

Note: Shaan is not a pinyin spelling. It should be spelled Shan, but it is written with two a’s to remind us that it in a different tone from the other word shan.

Phone apps.

The app that I use is called Pleco. For any English word you type in, you can see the Chinese spelling in pinyin, with the tone marks, and press on the speaker icon to hear the word. You can also photograph or copy in a Chinese character, and you will get the translation and sound.

 

More details about Chinese spelling systems

More about how to learn more

information for school administrators

Review each letter of the alphabet

A – like a in father, except the combination -ian is pronounced ee-enn. (likewise after the umlaut sound: pinyin “juan” is pronounced jü – end). To get the sound “joo-ahn,” the pinyin spelling is “zhuan.”

B – like English

C – used for the sound ts. The combination “ch” sounds like the ch in English chew.

D – like English

E – prononcer “uh.” Some words, like Chen and gen, rhyme with English “pen.”

F – like English

G – always at “hard” g, as in Go

H – like English, some people pronounce it with a catch in the voice, like the sound of the German “act.”

I – pronounced ee, except ping sounds like in ping pong. If  i is found alone after certain sounds (zh, ch, sh, r, s, c, z) it is silent. (write “13” in google translate to hear the sound shi san. write 14 to hear shi si)

J – sometimes written as j, sometimes as zh

K, ,L, M, N  – like English. -ng is like in English sing.

O – like aw. Usually found in the combination oo-aw. The sound “too-aw” is spelled tuo. The sound uo (pronounced oo-aw) is spelled wo, with the w taking the place of the u.  The pinyin sound -ong is not found in English, but is in between the sound in “song” and a long O sound. Write “dragon” or “China” in Google translate to hear the pronunciation.

P – like English

Q – used for the sound “ch” when before an i or ü.

R – like the s in measure, but can be pronounced more lightly so it sounds like a “rrr” sound.

S – a little more forceful than English. Sh is pronounced as in English.

T – like English.

U – pronounced “oo.” The umlaut sound ü (put your lips like oo but say ee) is said for the u in ju,qu,xu, you.

W – is used to replace u when there is no consonant in front of it. The sound ua (sounds like oo-ah) is spelled in pinyin as Wa. In some cases the w is silent. Examples: wu is pronounced oo, and wong is pronounced ong.

X – stands for a gentle s

Y – is used to replace i when there is no consonant in front of it. The sound ia (sounds like ee-ah) is spelled in Pinyin as Ya. The sound i (pronounced “ee”) is spelled in pinyin as “yi.”

Z – used for the sound dz. The combination “zh” is pronounced as a J.