Listed in alphabetical order, with Chinese equivalents. 中文在下面
The table of contents. Apostle, apocrypha, apocalypse, atonement, begotten, Christ, Covenant, evangelism, faith, gospel, heaven, hell, holy, inspiration, Jehovah, Jesus, justify, Jehovah, Kingdom of God, Melchizedek, paraclete, paradise, redeem, repent, sanctify, satan, sin, son of God, son of man, word, worship
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1) apostle. 使徒. Apo in Greek means “away from.”The “stl” is a shortened form of the Greek word that means “send.” Apostle is a shortened form of the Greek word “apostolos.” An apostle therefore is someone who is “sent out,” which implies the apostle is representing another and bringing that person’s message. Though this concept could also be translated by words like missionary or ambassador, yet the term “apostle” in English usage is usually reserved for the first generation of leaders. (There are a few denominations today who call their leaders “apostles.”) The disciples of Jesus became apostles when Jesus said the them, “As the Father has sent me, so send I you.” (John 20:21) Paul is called an apostle because Christ personally called him, and the church at Antioch sent him off at the Holy Spirit’s direction. (Acts 10:1-3) Jesus calls himself an apostle in Hebrews 3:1, since he was sent to earth by the father. Another word with “stl” is epistle. The “epi” means “upon,” so an epistle is something that is written down and then sent. It is shortened from the Greek word “epistolos.”
Apo- words continued. 2) Apocrypha. Crypha means hidden, so apocrypha means “hidden away from.” It is applied to the writings produced in Greek by Jews in the centuries just before Christ which were then inserted into the Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures. Their name comes from the fact that they were “hidden away” within these books. (Roman Catholicism calls these books “deuterocanonical,” which means “a second authoritative list of books). Some protestant bibles include these books, but sets them apart into a separate section rather than leaving them scattered around the Old Testament.
3) apocalypse. apo means away from,” and calyps is a covering or lid, so apocalypse means “taking the lid off.” It is the Greek name for the last book of the Bible, called Revelation in English 启示录, 啟示錄, because it takes off the cover so we can see future events. If you turn it into an adjective, apocalyptic, if means any book written in the style of the Book of Revelation, with symbolism and numbers, such as Daniel or Ezekiel.
Atonement. 挽 回 祭. In English Bibles, this translates a word that means “sins are forgiven by blood.” The background is that the Old Testament temple had a box (the covenant box, also called the ark of the covenant.) Once a year the high priest would pour blood taken from a sacrificed animal onto the cover of that box, and the people’s sins would then be forgiven. In the Hebrew language, the consonants for the name of the cover, KPR, were the same as the consonants for the resulting forgiveness. You can see these consonants in the Jewish holiday that continues to this day called “yom kippur.” “Yom” means “day,” and “kippur” is that Old Testament term about sins being forgiven by blood. In Greek language, the same word is also used for the cover and for the resulting forgiveness. This word is used in 1 John 2:2 to describe how Jesus takes care of our sins. Type that reference into the search box at Biblehub and note the many different words that English translators have used to express that concept, such as propitiation, expiation, and atoning sacrifice.
Begotten. This English word first appears in Psalm 2, where God says to the anointed one (Messiah): “You are my son; this day have I begotten you.” This Psalm was sung when the kings were anointed, so we see that the word is not limited to referring to a physical birth, but also has extended uses, as here where it means the bestowal of a status. This wide usage is found in both Hebrew and Greek: in both languages, the word used here sometimes is used for a physical birth, as in the genealogies about who begat whom, and in a spiritual sense, as in being “born again.” This extended usage is see in the Nicene Creed, which says that Jesus is “begotten of his father before all worlds … begotten, not made.” Using it here emphasizes that Jesus eternally existed as God independent from his appearance as a human. Another Greek word, that is made up of the word for only and the word for origin (genesis), is sometimes translated into English as “only begotten,” for example in the verse “he gave his only begotten Son” (John 3:16.) (Biblehub shows that many translators write “only son” for this verse.) Yet another Greek word, made of “first” and “born,” is in the verse “the first begotten from the dead” (Revelation 1:5, which some Bibles translate as “firstborn from the dead.”) The English translators chose the word “begotten” in these cases because the verse was clearly meant to indicate something more than just a physical birth.
Christ. 基 督. John 1:41 says that Christ is the Greek word that corresponds to the Hebrew-based word Messiah 弥 赛 亚, 彌 賽 亞. Both these words mean “anointed one.” 受膏者. In the Old Testament, it usually refers to becoming a king. For example, Samuel anointed David to be king. God promised David that one of his descendants would be king forever. After the Jews were conquered in 586 BC, the people longed for this king, the “promised Messiah,” to appear. When we say “Jesus Christ,” we mean “Jesus the King.” Many characteristics of the Messiah are mentioned in Psalm 2: he is called God’s son, he will rule over the nations, (this comes true in Revelation 19:15) and he is the way to avoid Gods wrath – verse 12 uses the phrase “kiss the son,” that is, to be in a relationship of dependence on the Messiah, as Jesus teaches about himself in John 14:6, “no one comes to the Father but by me.”
Church. 教会，教會. This English word is used to represent the Greek word ekklesia. The “ek” means “out,” and the “kl” is a shortened form of the Greek root “kal,” which means “call.” The ekklesia are the “called-out ones.” The Jewish scholars who translated the Old Testament from Hebrew to Greek selected this term to refer to gatherings of the people of God (for example in Psalm 107:32). The New Testament preserved this meaning, and expanded it to include Jesus-believers, whether they had been Jews or not. Some Bible verses containing this word use it to mean the entire body of all people who believe in Jesus. (for example, Colossians 1:24). Other passages use it to refer to a local gathering of believers (for example, Philemon verse 2). (For another word with the root “kl,” see paraclete.) The English word “church” has an interesting background. The underlying Greek word is not found in the Bible, but was used in early centuries to represent believers as a group. The word is Kyriakos. Kyrios means Lord, so the word means “those who belong to the Lord.” In the process of language change through the years, the K became pronounced as ch, the Greek y is often changed into the English u, and the ending was dropped, resulting in the word “church.”
Covenant. 约，約. A covenant is like an agreement or treaty. God made a covenant with Noah, in which God promised never again to destroy the world by water. Some Jewish scholars regard this as God’s covenant with the entire human race. But the covenant the Bible is most concerned about is the one that God made with Abraham, by which he constituted Abraham’s descendants as God’s people. This covenant was reaffirmed several times, for example, to Moses and to Joshua Jeremiah prophesied that there would be a new covenant. Jesus revealed that the new covenant had arrived when, in instituting holy communion, he said “this is my blood of the new covenant.” The main question is whether the new replaces the old, or whether the new is a continuation of the old. I will give reasons why I see it as a continuation. First of all, one statement in the covenant was repeated each time it was renewed: the statement that “I will be your God.” This is even repeated in Revelation 21:3 as the culmination of earth history. Secondly, gentiles are explicitly brought into the covenant with Abraham, for Galatians 3:14 says “He redeemed us in order that the blessing given to Abraham might come to the Gentiles through Christ Jesus,” Paul explains that it is not those with the DNA of Abraham but those with the faith of Abraham who carry on the promise of the covenant, for Romans 4:16-17 says “Therefore, the promise comes by faith, so that it may be by grace and may be guaranteed to all Abraham’s offspring—not only to those who are of the law but also to those who have the faith of Abraham. He is the father of us all. As it is written: “I have made you a father of many nations.” Gentiles are also explicitly given the titles that were used of the people of Israel. 1 Peter 2:9 calls Gentiles “a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God’s special possession.” There are also elements of the Old Covenant that were continued but transformed in the new. The old had priests and sacrifices that had to be repeated, while in the new those are transformed into one single sacrifice and a high priest who lives forever. The temple in the old testament was a brick and mortar building, but in the new testament Jesus is the temple (a temple is a place where God lives), and because we are united to Jesus, we are temples too. Jesus explicitly said he did not come to abolish the law, but to fulfil it. Our being grafted into the covenant is what makes it possible for us to use the Psalms as our own expressions of worship, for the “steadfast love” spoken of there means the love that is guaranteed to people who are of the covenant. Jeremiah 31:31 spoke of a “New Covenant,” which repeated the concept of God being God to us, and the New Testament gets its name from the Christian belief that the New Covenant has arrived with the coming of Christ Jesus. When instituting the Lord’s Supper, Jesus himself said “This is my blood of the New Covenant.” For more, see article on Christian use of the Old Testament.
Discipling. 做门徒，做門徒. Christ commands us to make disciples of all nation. Our role in making disciples is to get to know people, share the gospel, and determine their response. After someone confesses faith in Christ and receives baptism, we are to help them in an ongoing process of nurture and growth.
An important early step for a new Christian is to establish that assurance of faith is not based on feelings but on the promises of God’s Word, and to become aware of one’s position in Christ. During the first month, help them to grasp the organization of the Bible and its terminology, and to start a habit of daily prayer and Bible reading. New believers have a unique credibility with their non-Christian friends so we should encourage them to talk about their new faith.
Continuing on, help them develop a Christian worldview by learning more and more about these 6 areas: (1) the nature of humanity as created in God’s image but marred by rebellion; (2) The nature of God as love, shown in the mutual love of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit which is extended to you; (3) God’s love shown in sending Jesus to pay the penalty of your sins on the cross (justification); (4) the Holy Spirit’s presence giving you comfort and strength, and moving you toward maturity (sanctification), giving you purpose in life as you “do the good works God has prepared for you to do (Ephesians 2:10); (5) your unity with all other believers and your function in that community (6) living in awareness of the shortness of this life and the promise of your eternal home. More on these six. The goal of growth is to become more and more mature. The Greek word translated mature is telos, which means fulfilling the intended purpose, like an acorn becoming an oak tree. God’s plan is “to conform us to the image of His son (Romans 8:29). See these suggestions for your own growth. See more suggestions.
Evangelism. see gospel.
Faith. Faith and Belief are translations of one and the same Greek word, pistos, which means “having become convinced.” It is also the word that describes the kind of relationship with God, one of dependence and trust. See more
Glory. 荣耀. This word has multiple uses in the Bible. In the Christmas story, it is sung by the angels as a word of worship. That meaning is expressed more fully in Psalm 29:2 “Give to the LORD the glory of His name,” where the following line makes that action synonymous with worship: “worship the LORD in the beauty of holiness.” The core meaning of the underlying Hebrew word, kabob, is weightiness and worthiness, so in giving glory to God” you are expressing his importance. The Greek word is doxa, which in secular Greek referred to one’s reputation, but in the New Testament doxa is to be seen as the translation for the Hebrew term kabod, with its overtones of the importance which belongs only to God. and by adding logos, which means “word,”, the term doxology was formed, which means “words of glory.” But the word “glory” is used again in the Christmas story in another way, as something available to our sense experience. The glory of the Lord shown around the shepherds, and that made them afraid. In 1 Kings 8:11, the cloud of smoke in the temple was regarded as the glory of God, that is, His presence was made known by the smoke, and that made the priests afraid to enter the temple. In Psalm 19, God reveals how great He is by the things He has created: “The heavens declare the glory of God.” We are part of that created universe, and Ephesians 1:12 tells says that we also “exist for the praising of His glory,” that is, when people see us, they are supposed to get an idea of how wonderful God is. The most clear way that God has revealed himself is through his son Jesus. John 1:14 says, “we beheld his glory,” that is, we were able to look at Jesus and get an impression of the greatness of God. The verb form of Greek “doxa” is “dokein,” which means “to show,” which reinforces the idea that the word represents a “showing forth” of God. There are also verses where the word glory is used for the supernatural qualities of God that are beyond what we can experience with our earthly senses. In the John 17 prayer, Jesus speaks of “the glory I had with you before the world began. In Exodus 33:18-22, Moses asks to see God’s glory, but God tells Moses that “you cannot see my face, for no one can see me and live.” God has to cover Moses’ face while His glory passes by here, even though elsewhere in Exodus Moses’ encounters with God are described as “face to face.” What a wondrous turnabout will happen when we are “in glory,” that is, in heaven, where we will see him face to face (1 Corinthians 13:12). The Hebrew word translated as “glory” is “kabod,” also spelled “chabod.” The name “Ichabod” starts with the prefix “I,” which negates the word, so 1 Samuel 4:21 says “she named the child Ichabod, because the glory of God departed from Israel which the ark was taken.”
Gospel. 福音. This word is a shortened form of the older English Godspel. The “god” here means “good,” and the “spel” means story, as in the English word “spellbound “. This makes it a literal translation of the Greek term, which is evangelize: the “ev” means “good,” and the “angel” means “message.” (An angel is a messenger.) The message is spelled out in 1 Corinthians 15:1-4: that Jesus died and rose, which gives us forgiveness and eternal life. See more
This section will first examine “heaven” 天堂 as the place where God is now, and then “heaven” as the word for where believers go after they die.
(1) Jesus teaches us to invoke God as “Our Father in heaven,” (Matthew 6:9) 我们在天上的父 and this was a familiar concept because it was also found in the prayer that Solomon said at the dedication of the temple, “Listen to the plea of your servant and of your people Israel, when they pray toward this place (the temple). And listen in heaven your dwelling place, and when you hear, forgive.” (1 Kings 8:30 ESV). Solomon though had a wider concept of where God dwells, for earlier in verse 27 he said “Behold, heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain You.” (NKJV). Psalm 139 goes further, saying there is no place one can go to flee from God: “If I go up to the heavens, you are there; if I make my bed in the depths, you are there.” (Ps 139:8 NIV). In Jeremiah God says “do I not fill heaven and earth, says the LORD?” (Jer 23:24 NIV). God is everywhere, and yet also “if we love one another, God lives in us and his love is made complete in us.”1 John 4:12 NIV.
All these descriptions could be tied together with a word that is not in the Bible, but is familiar to us in our scientific age. I conceive of God as being in something similar to another dimension, a dimension that is not accessible to our five senses, and that is not tied down to space and time. Using this concept, when we pray “our Father in heaven,” we definitely will not think of Him as far away.
God created other beings to exist in that supernatural dimension. Jesus says that the angels of God are in heaven (Matthew 22:30). Paul calls Satan “the prince of the power of the air.” (Ephesians 2:2 ESV). Paul also says “For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the cosmic powers over this present darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places.”(Ephesians 6:12 ESV), but that Christ is victorious over them (Ephesians 1:20-21).
Though we cannot sense that dimension, God does have ways of showing Himself to us in our dimension. For details on these ways, see the entries on inspiration and glory. The Kingdom of Heaven is a different topic. It is Matthew’s culturally sensitive way of describing what Luke calls the Kingdom of God; see Kingdom of God on this page.
As you read passages about heaven, it is important to note that many languages, including the biblical languages, use the same word for sky as they do for the dwelling place of God. The term used in Psalm 18:3 about the natural universe: “When I look at your heavens, the work of your fingers, the moon and the stars, which you have set in place,” is used again in Psalm 2:4 to indicate the place where God is: “He who sits in the heavens laughs; the Lord holds them in derision.” The Jewish scholars before Christ selected the Greek word for sky, “Ouranos” to translate the Hebrew term. Therefore the New Testament writers also used that Greek word both with the physical meaning, “Look at the birds of the heaven” (Matthew 6:26 ASV) and the supernatural meaning: “both their Master and yours is in heaven,” (Ephesians 6:9 NIV). Fortunately, most of the English translations reserve the word heaven for the supernatural meaning, and translate the physical meaning with “sky” or “air,” as in “the birds of the air.”
The idea that God is “above” in a certain place may have come from the fact that when Jesus ascended, he went up and through the clouds. The creed summarized this by saying “he ascended into heaven.” By this they did not mean that Jesus is absent, for Jesus said “Lo I am with you alway” (Mt 28:20).
(2) As far as where we go when we die, we commonly say that we “go to heaven.” The only verses about the afterlife that actually have the word heaven in them are the teachings about us having treasures laid up in heaven (Matthew 6:20 and similar verses). I am not saying that we shouldn’t use the phrase “go to heaven,” for when we die, the Bible says “the dust returns to the ground it came from, and the spirit returns to God who gave it.”(Ecclesiastes 12:7 NIV) If God is in heaven, and we go to God, it is not illogical to say that “we go to heaven.”
But to get more details after life after death, we need to look at the many verses about this topic that do not happen to have the word “heaven” in them. These verses about where we go after we die can be divided into (a) where we are before judgment day, and (b) where we are after judgment day.
(a) The Old Testament uses the Hebrew word “sheol” for the place that the dead go to. Sheol does not seem to be a permanent destination for believers, for Psalm 16:10 says “you will not leave my soul in Sheol.” Those who translated the Old Testament into Greek borrowed the word Hades from Greek religion to use here, and that word was translated into English as hell 阴间，陰間.
This verse was quoted by Peter in Acts 2:27 as a proof passage to show that the resurrection of Jesus has Old Testament authority. The Apostles Creed as well, by saying about Jesus that “he descended into hell, the third day he rose from the dead” affirms that the Psalm verse is fulfilled by Jesus. Because we are united with Jesus by baptism, this verse applies to us as well, because Jesus will raise us up from the dead, not leaving us “in Sheol.”
Another word, paradise, was used by Jesus when he said to the thief on the cross next to him “this day you shall be with me in paradise.” See separate entry about that word.
(b) In regards to our eternal destination. Jesus says that at Judgment day, he will separate people as a shepherd separates sheep and goats. To one group he will say “come you who are blessed of my Father, enter your inheritance,” and “the righteous will to into eternal life.” (Matthew 25:31-46.)
The location of that eternal life is described in Revelation 2:1 where it is called “new heavens and a new earth,” in other words, a new universe, because “the first earth had passed away.” (Peter teaches about this in 2 Peter 3:7-13). Jesus calls it “the age to come” in Matthew 12:32. So when we say “I will go to heaven,” it is a short way of saying that “I will get a resurrection body after judgment day and will inhabit the new heavens and the new earth.”
Hell. (1) The Old Testament uses the Hebrew word sheol as the term for the place of the dead, not differentiating between before or after judgment day. It seems though that believers expected that they would be delivered from this place. (Besides Psalm 16:10, also see Psalm 86:13). When putting the Old Testament into Greek (to form the Septuagint, before 150 BC), the Jewish scholars selected the word Hades (which was used in Greek religion to mean the place of the dead) to translate the Hebrew word sheol. This word was translated into English as hell. 阴间，陰間
(2) The New Testament teaches that believers go directly to Jesus while awaiting judgement day (they do not go to hell or sheol). As far as unbelievers before judgement day, there is a verse that reveals the place where the unsaved dead are: in Luke 16:23 Jesus says that the rich man in the story had gone to Hades, translated into English as hell. 阴间，陰間. This is clearly about his situation before judgement day, because the man’s bothers are still on earth.
The New Testament has more detail about what happens after judgment day. When Jesus separates people as a shepherd separates sheep and goats, he says these words to those who are not going to eternal life: “depart from me, you who are cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels,” and “these will go into eternal punishment.” (Matthew 25:31-46.)
Various terms are used to describe this eternal punishment:
a. The place of unquenchable fire. 火烧尽的地方 (Matt 3:12).
b. The place where the unsaved are cast. (Mt 5:29) , and the place of judgement (Mt 23:33). The Greek word used here is Gehenna, also translated into English as hell. 地狱. It was not originally a Greek word, but is a Greek spelling of a Hebrew place called “ge Hinnom,” which means “the valley of Hinnom.” That valley was just south of Jerusalem. In Old Testament times, the Canaanites used to sacrifice their children to their god Baal in this valley. As time passed, this word began to be used to refer the place of punishment of the ungodly.
c. The place where Satan and the unsaved will be cast at Judgement Day. Rev 20:15 calls it the Lake of Fire. 火湖, that burns with fire and brimstone (Rev 21:8).
d. The place of outer darkness where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth (Mt 8:12). 作恶的会被丢在火炉里，在那里必要哀哭切齒
e. The place where the angels who sinned are now. 2 Peter 2:4 calls it by the Greek word Tartarus, translated into English as hell. 翻译为地狱
Holy. 圣洁的，聖潔的. This English word was chosen to translate the Hebrew word “kadosh.” The meaning is “set apart from the commonplace.” Early in the Old Testament it was used to described special places (holy ground, holy temple). The cups used in worship in the temple were holy because they were set apart for God’s use. Then the word was used to describe the people of Israel, a “holy nation.” Then the word holy was used to describe God, since He is the One most different from commonplace. In Isaiah 6:3, the angels use it as a worship term directed toward God. The impact of seeing God in his perfection caused Isaiah to be conscious of his imperfection. This angel song, “Holy Holy Holy,” was sung in the Jewish synagogue service, and is still sung in many Christian churches around the world. The apostle John heard angels sing it (recorded in Revelation 4:8). The Greek word used is hagios; you may know that a large historic church in Constantinople is called Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom). In the New Testament, those who believe in Jesus are again called a “holy nation.” (1 Peter 2:9) The Latin word is Sanctus, which is the basis for the English term “sanctification,” to grow in holiness. Due to French influence on the English language, that Latin root, sanct, became the word “saint.” The word “saints” means “holy ones,” designating that believers are set apart from the commonplace for God’s use. Paul calls all Christians “saints” in Ephesians 1:1. This reminds us that those who believe in Jesus become part of the “holy nation,” the same people of God made up of believers in the Old Testament.
Inspiration. Paul teaches us that all scripture is inspired by God (2 Tim 3:6). That phrase “inspired by God” is the English translation of a single Greek word, “God-breathed.” Because God is the originator of scripture, that is why it has authority, and why, as Paul continues, it is “profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, so the man of God may be competent, equipped for every good work.” We look at the Bible itself to discover what it means to be inspired. God used real people in a specific culture to reveal truths about himself. Peter tells us that the prophecies in scripture were not “produced by the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.” God spoke to Abraham and to Moses, and often in the prophets we see the phrase “thus says the Lord.” When David was anointed as king, “the Spirit of God rushed upon David from that day forward” (1 Samuel 16:13), and we can see the result in the Psalms that he wrote. When Paul used the word scripture in the first sentence above, he was referring to the Old Testament, but the concept is if anything even more true of the New Testament, because “God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, but in these last days he has spoken to us by His Son” (Hebrews 1:2). This direct speaking by Jesus, coupled with the hundreds of Old Testament verses quoted in the New, show why the entire Bible is regarded by Christians as God’s Word to them. That book is the only one accorded this kind of authority. That’s why when someone today says “God spoke to me,” we check the content with the Bible. God also revealed himself in the Bible through actions, such as holding back the waters of the Red Sea, and raising Christ from the dead. God also revealed himself in visions, such as Jacob seeing a ladder, and Paul experiencing “the third heaven,” as well as the entire Book of Revelation. In all this ways, God takes the initiative to reveal himself to us. It is dangerous for us to take the initiative and try to get a communication from God or a feeling of oneness with God. That is why God so strictly forbids occult activity in Deuteronomy 18:10-11.
Jehovah. 耶和华，耶和華. This is an English version of the name that God told Moses to call Him at the burning bush. The Hebrew Bible was written using only consonants, and the consonants for that name were YHWH. No one can prove how that name was pronounced, but the commonly used way is “Yahweh.” That word was a form of the word that means “to be.” One could conclude that God here was calling himself “the existent one,” as explained by Jesus in John 5:26: “For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself.” The first part of this name can be seen at the end of the names Isaiah and Zachariah, and at the beginning of the names Jesus and Joshua (see next article). As the years went by, the Jewish people stopped pronouncing this name, in order make sure that they did not disobey the commandment “do not take the name of the Lord your God in vain.” Whenever they read the Bible aloud and came to the consonants YHWH, they said their word for Lord instead. That word is Adonai. In the middle ages, Jewish scholars devised a way to write vowels by putting symbols under the consonants. Under the consonants YHWH, they wrote the consonants for Adonai, since that was the word they were planning to say. In the 1800’s a man in England combined the consonants for YHWH with the vowels for Adonai, and produce the word Jehovah. He used J instead of Y at the beginning because In the course of language development, many words that began with ‘y” were changed to a ‘J” in English. The sound “v” was already an alternate way to pronounce the Hebrew consonant W. Recently other scholars have suggested that the original Hebrew pronunciation may have been Yehowah. See film clip
Jesus. 耶稣，耶穌. The “je” stands for God (short for the name of God Yahweh, with the y changed to a J) and the Sus stands for save, So Jesus’ name means “God saves,” or “God is Salvation.” This clarifies the sentence the angel spoke to Joseph in Matthew 1:21 “you shall call his name Jesus, BECAUSE he will save His people from their sins.” The Old Testament leader Joshua is based on the same two words. In Hebrew, Jesus sounds like “yeshua,” and Joshua sounds like Yehoshua.” The “ye” is short for the name God told Moses to call him at the burning bush. See previous article, “Jehovah.”
Justify. 称 义，稱 義. Justify means to declare someone just (same Greek word as righteous). To “be justified” means that someone else has declared you just. In our case, God has declared us just, even though we don’t deserve it Romans 3:23-25 says, “all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, but have been justified as a gift of his grace through the setting free (see redeem) which is in Jesus Christ, whom God has set forth as an atonement (see atonement) through faith, in his blood.” When God justifies you, he immediately begins to sanctify you (see sanctify), but the definitions must be kept distinct. God declares you righteous, and then He gradually changes your attitudes and behavior. You are made a Christian, and then you gradually begin to look like one.
Kingdom of God. Mark, Luke and John use the phrase Kingdom of God, and Matthew uses the term Kingdom of Heaven 天国，天國 to refer to the same thing. Since Matthew was writing to Jews, it is logical to suppose that he is showing sensitivity to their reluctance to say the word God in order to avoid using it in vain.
The kingdom referred to is the one that God promised David, that one of his descendants would be an eternal king (2 Samuel 7:16). Unfortunately, the earthly kingdom of David’s descendants ended in 586 BC, when the Jewish kingdom was destroyed. But the Jews believed God’s promise, so they expected that God would send a king at a future time. They called this future king “the Messiah.” For example, around 700 BC the prophet Micah predicted the destruction, but prophesied that the expected eternal ruler will be born in Bethlehem (Micah 5:2). At the time of Jesus’ birth, the Jewish leaders quoted this verse to tell Herod where the king of the Jews was to be born (Matthew 2:4-6). When Jesus began preaching, he said “The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand” (Mark 1:15 ESV). By saying this, he indicated that he was the promised king, the Messiah. The book of Hebrews tells us that the kingdom comes in two stages: “Christ, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to deal with sin but to save those who are eagerly waiting for him” (Hebrews 9:28). Our eternal life will be in that Kingdom of God. But since Christ is our king now, we are already in his kingdom. His parables largely tells us what life is like now in his kingdom.
LORD. When it is all in capital letters, it substitutes for the name of God, YHWH. Most scholars pronounce this as Yahweh. On this page it is explained under the heading Jehovah.”
Melchizedek. 麦 基 洗 德. He was the king of Salem, which later became Jerusalem, at the time of Abraham. In Genesis 14:18 he is called a “priest of the most high God.” Abraham in the next verse makes an offering to him of one-tenth of the goods he had just received from a military victory. He is mentioned again in Psalm 110:4 where it calls the Messiah a priest in the line of Melchizedek. This suggests that when David captured Jerusalem he would have taken the right to carry on that priestly line. This idea is not explicitly stated in the Old Testament, but it helps to understand Hebrews chapter 7, where Psalm 110 is applied to Jesus, the everlasting King promised to David. Hebrews 7 says that Jesus is our great high priest, because even though he is not in the family of Levi, the ones designated by God to be Old Testament priests, Jesus is a descendant of David, and thus a priest of the most high God in the line of Melchizedek. As our high priest, Jesus continually offers intercession for us and acts as our go-between in our prayers to God (Hebrews 7:25) and most of all offered up an eternal sacrifice for our salvation (verse 27). The sacrifice as himself.
Messiah. See Christ
Paraclete. The “para” means “alongside, and the “cl” (Greek kl) is short for the Greek root “kal,” which means call. This combination, “one who is called alongside,” was used in the secular Greek world as a word for “lawyer.” That makes it easy to see why this word is sometimes translated into English as “advocate.” The verb form, parakalao, is used four times in Second Corinthians 1: 2. After calling God the God of all COMFORT, Paul continues: “the one COMFORTING us in all our afflictions, so we are able to COMFORT those in every affliction with the COMFORT with which we have been COMFORTED by God. Thus it is easy to see why the word paraclete is sometimes translated as “comforter.” Jesus was a comforter, which is why in John 14:16 He calls the Holy Spirit “another comforter, who will be with you forever.” In biblehub.com, click that verse to see the variety of ways it has been translated. In common usage, therefore, paraclete is a word that refers to the Holy Spirit.
Paradise. This word is used to refer to (1) a place that exists now, (2) a place that we will go to when we die, and (3) a place where we will spend eternal life. So the range of meaning is the same as for the word heaven. Genesis 2:8 says that Adam and Eve were placed into a garden (Hebrew “gan”). When the Jewish scholars translated the Hebrew Bible into Greek, they chose the word paradise, which Greek had borrowed from Persian, to describe that place (English translates “garden” here 园 子,園 子, direct from Hebrew). That place had a tree of life, and Revelation 22:2 tells us that our eternal life in the new heavens and new earth will also include a tree of life. So God promises in Revelation 2:7 “to the one who conquers, I will grant to eat of the tree of life which is in the paradise of God.” (usage 3). When Paul had his visions of God, he said he was taken up to paradise to see them (2 Corinthians 12:3, usage 1). When the thief died on the cross, Jesus told him, “today you will be with me in paradise.” (Luke 23:43, usage 2).
Redeem. 救 赎, 救 贖. This word translates the Greek term “set free.” It was chosen by the Jews who translated the Old Testament into Greek to describe the event of escape from Egypt. When Jesus rose from the dead, that same word was seen as a good one to describe the freedom Jesus gives us from sin and death. Go to Biblehub and see the many different ways peoples have translated Colossians 1:13-14, which says that God “rescued us from the oppression of darkness and transferred us into the kingdom of his the son he loves, in whom we have the setting-free (redemption), the forgiveness of sins.”
Repent. 悔改. The underlying Greek word is metanoia. “Meta” means “change,” and “noia” refers to your thinking process. Repentance expresses that your viewpoint toward your sins has changed from your old way of trying to excuse it to looking at it the same way God does: God hates it. See more
Sanctify. 成圣，成聖. Sanct is the Latin word for holy. When God declares us just (justifies us) he also begins to sanctify us, that is, to transform our attitudes and behavior toward Christ-likeness. 1 Thessalonians 4:3 says “this is the will of God, your sanctification (Greek term here is based on hagios, which means holy. See Holy, above), that you reject sexual sin.” Your rate of progress in sanctification does not cancel your position as a justified one, as someone totally accepted by faith in Christ. That’s because your justification was never based on your behavior in the first place. Therefore, when we have a moral failure, we do not think, “what can I do so that God will accept me again,” but rather, “since I am already accepted by God, I can depend on God to forgive me and to be on my side in my fight against wrong behavior.”
Satan. 撒旦, devil. 魔鬼, Beelzebub or Beelzebul 别 西 卜. All these words refer to one and the same supernatural enemy of God. Each word has a different origin, so together they fill out the description of that enemy.
Satan means opponent. Jesus uses the word in that way when he tells Peter, “get behind me, Satan.” Matthew 16:23
Devil (in Greek “diabolos”) means deceiver.
Lucifer comes from the Greek word for light. This name is in Isaiah 14:12, where some English Bibles translate his name as “morning star, son of the dawn” 明 亮 之 星. It stresses his ability to appear as “an angel of light,” that is, to appear to be good. (2 Cor 11:14)
This enemy is also called “tempter,” “father of lies,” “the evil one,” “serpent.”
His actions include “seeking someone to devour,” “oppression.” (Acts 10:38).
The English word devil is also used to translate “demons” 鬼，who are servants of Satan.
Beelzebub refers to the leader of the demons. It may be another way to pronounce Baalzebub, one of the Lords of the ancient religions of Canaan.
Sin. There are many words for “sin” in the Bible. The most common Hebrew word translated by the English word “sin” is the word “hatah” (the first “h” is written with a dot under it: pronounce it like the ch at the end of the word Bach). The corresponding Greek word chosen by the Jewish scholars before 150 BC is “hamartia,” which then is used in the New Testament. Both words mean “missing the mark.”
In the Bible, the “mark” referred to is the commands of God, for the Bible explains “Everyone who commits sin also breaks the law; sin is the breaking of law” (1 John 3:4). For example, when Joseph in Egypt was tempted with sex outside of marriage, he said “how can I do this great wickedness and sin against God?” (The word for wickedness here means evil.)
We may hurt others, but in so doing, we actually sin against God, as David admitted when he said to God concerning his murder of Bathsheba’s husband “Against you, you only, have I sinned, and done what is evil in your sight” (Psalm 51:4).
Of the many other Hebrew words that expand on the concept of sinfulness, the following three are the most used: the word “a-won” (pronounce av-own) means to commit a wrongdoing; this is often translated as “iniquity.”
The word pesa (pronounce peh-sha) describes the sinful attitude of rebellion, and is often translated as “transgression.” Jesus makes clear that the attitude of rebellion against God is not only shown by actions, but seen in our heart and shown in our words (Matthew 5). All three of these words for sins are used in Psalm 51:1-4, where verse four adds another term, “doing evil.” You can see these Hebrew words on biblehub.com by pressing the option “interlin.”
The other word that is used frequently, “asem,” (pronounce ah-shame) designates acts that create guilt, acts that would have demanded offering a sacrifice. It is often translated “trespass.” An example of the concept is in Leviticus 6:1-7
The Bible makes sin concrete by providing lists of sins, for example in the Ten Commandments, and in Galatians 5:19-21. Sometimes the concept is deepened by listing what sinners do not do, as in the Old Testament quotations compiled in Romans 3:9-18. Sinning produces symptoms, such as guilt and shame.
It is also instructive to see the many words used to describe the solutions for sin, such as “wash away, cleanse, forgive.” The reason that enhancing our concept of sinfulness is valuable is that it shows us the need for a savior, who will apply those solutions to us. Sinning deserves punishment: Romans 6:23 says “the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ.”
In the Old Testament, sin was dealt with by animal sacrifices, but when Jesus came, our sins were washed away by His sacrifice in our place upon the cross. We deserved to be punished, but Jesus took the punishment for us. See atonement on this page, and see more here.
Son of God. 神的儿子. When Jesus is called Son of God, two themes come into view. For one thing, that term is a description of the Messiah, for in Psalm 2:7 God says to the anointed one “you are my son.” In the second place, it was regarded as Jesus claiming to be equal with God. In John 5:7, the Jews wish to kill Jesus “because you called God your Father, thereby making yourself equal with God.” In John 17:4 Jesus talks about “the glory he had with the father before the worlds began.” This equality with God is reflected in the formula to be used at baptism: “In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.” (Matthew 28: 19). Here Son does not mean Messiah, but means “God the Son.”
Son of Man. 人子. Jesus often called himself “son of man.” It may be that he wanted his hearers to associate him with someone Daniel saw in a vision, and called “son of man.” This vision is in Daniel 7:13-14. Jesus explicitly applies some themes in this vision to himself. For example, he says he will “come with the clouds of heaven” in Matthew 24:30 and Matthew 26:64.. Having authority over all is reflected in the sheep and goats saying (Matthew 25:32). this authority was prophesied about the Messiah in Psalm 2, and is seen as coming true in Revelation 19. In Mark 2:10, Jesus says that he, since he is son of man, has power to forgive sins, and his enemies say correctly that only God can forgive sins. By this Jesus shows that he is equal with God, and in fact He is God, as it also states in John 1:1.
Soul. and Spirit. Soul 灵魂，靈魂 sometimes is used to refer to a human being, as in Genesis 46:26 “sixty-six souls (Hebrew “Nephesh”) came with Jacob to Egypt,” and that is why newer translations say “sixty-six persons.” Sometimes soul refers to the part of a human that is different from the body, as in Psalm 31:9 “My body and soul (Hebrew “nephesh”) are withering away,” and in Revelation 20:4 “I saw the souls (Greek “Psyche”) of those who had been martyred.” Sometimes it refers to something different from both body and spirit, as in 1 Thessalonians 5:23 “may God keep your spirit (Greek “pneuma”) and soul (Greek “psyche) and body blameless” and in Hebrews 4:12 “the word can divide soul and spirit 灵, 靈 (psyche and pneuma).” Since this verse does not define those terms, commentators typically use soul to include things like mind and heart, and use spirit to mean the part of us that can have a relationship with God. A famous verse that speaks of us as made of body and spirit is Ecclesiastes 12:7 “the dust returns to the ground it came from, and the spirit (Hebrew “ruach”) returns to God who made it.” In each case, you need to read the entire sentence to know which meaning is meant.
Word. 道 In John 1:1 “word” is an English translation of the Greek word “logos.” That word can be used to mean ordinary speech, but it was also a technical term in Greek philosophy, referring in general to a way of connection between divine and human. In the century before Christ a Jewish intellectual, Philo of Alexandria, applied this idea to the God of the Bible. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy summarizes Philo as saying “In fact, the logos is only God’s shadow, His image, the instrument by which He created the world, or in a more anthropomorphic way, His “first-born son” or His deputy (Agr. 51). In Fug. 109, the logos is said to be “the Son of God and Sophia”.”
John adds the assertion that Jesus is more than a deputy, but is himself divine, by saying “the logos was God.” John clarifies that he is talking about Jesus when in verse 18 he writes “the Word became flesh.” This concept is expressed in different language in Hebrews 1:2-3: God has spoken to us by his Son (referring to Jesus) … through whom He made the universe, who is the radiance of His glory and the exact expression of His substance https://biblehub.com/interlinear/hebrews/1-3.htm
Accordingly John 1:1 means that the logos is a term for Jesus who existed from eternity as the expressive aspect of the One God. I invite you to refer to my Bible Terms web page https://foundbytes.com/bible-terms/
Worship. 敬 拜 This English word is a shortened version of an older English word worth-ship, so it means showing worth to someone. In England, noblemen were therefore addressed as “your worship.” When referring to worship toward God, several of the Hebrew words translated as “worship” express the physical posture of bowing down in submission. In the first commandment, in Exodus 20:5, God says “you shall not worship them (idols). Here the Hebrew word translated as “worship” is “shachach,” which is a standard word for bowing down, as a demonstration of submission. It is the same word used in Genesis 42:6, where Joseph’s brothers bow down to him. Exodus 20:5 continues: “or serve them.” The Hebrews word translated “serve” is “abad,” which is used in a secular sense in Genesis 15:13-14, where God says that the Israelites will serve in a foreign land for 400 years.
When Exodus 20:5 is quoted in Greek in Matthew 4:10, the word used for worship 拜is the Greek word “proskyneo”. The kyn means “kiss” and the pros means “toward.” This is “kiss” in the sense that it is used in Psalm 2:12, “kiss the son lest he be angry;” the kiss made to a ruler to show submission, so in both Greek and Hebrew the word translated as worship carries the meaning of submission. Matthew 4:10 continues by using a common Greek word for serve, “latreuo.” 事 奉
Another New Testament word for serve is “douleuo,” the usual word for what servant does; in 1 Thessalonians 1:9 this word is used in the phrase “you turned from idols to serve the living God.”
In the book of Psalms, a worship sentence often includes why the worship is being given, either as an expression of what God is like, or what God does. These two are also seen in two songs of worship in Revelation that well express the intent of worship by starting with words “you are worthy.” 你 是 配 得 In Revelation 4:11, God is worshipped for being creator. In Revelation 5:9-12, Jesus is worshipped for dying for our sins.
Yahweh. See Jehovah.
See the Glossary of Bible terms on Wikipedia
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圣经词汇： (繁體字 在下面）
人子. 在四个福音里，耶稣平常称自己为人子，为了要表示祂是500年前但以理在异象所看到的一位超自然的人（但以理书 7:13）。异象里的“人子”驾着天云来，他的国度是永远的。 耶稣被审判的时候引用此经文对大祭司说“后来你们要看见人子坐在那全能者的右边，驾着天上的云降临”（太26:64）。在末日他（人子）会审判人类（太25:32）。他跟神一样有赎罪的权柄 （马可福音2:10）,因此他跟神平等的，也就是神。
门徒。 耶稣有十二个门徒，但是今天每一个跟随耶稣的人可以成为门徒。在太28:19耶稣命令我们“使万民作他的门徒。”帮别人作门徒有三个阶段：做朋友，传扬耶稣，培养到 完全的地步（希伯来书6:1）。在这里“完全”有“成熟”的意思，想种子变成树。（“完全”的原文希腊文的意思就是telos,有“达到目标”的意思）。
（b） 末日的那一天，圣经鼓励我们说“我们就要和主永远同在”（帖撒罗尼前书4:17）。耶稣会对信徒说“来承受那创世以来为你们所预备的国（太25:34），就是耶稣为我们预备的地方（约14:2）。彼得告诉我们看得见的天和地会被毁灭，然后神会造“新天新地”（彼得后书3:10-13）。神会“擦去一切的眼泪，不再有死亡，也不再有悲哀，痛苦“（启示录21: 1 -4）。信徒说“我要上天堂”的意思是“我要得到复活的神体永远主在神创造的天和地。 ”
天国。在马太福音4:17,耶稣说“天国近了。”在马可福音1:15，耶稣说“ 神的国近了”。这两句的意思是一样的。马可用“神的国”, 因为他的读者是非犹太人，要他们了解耶稣的意思。马太的读者是犹太人。犹太人有习惯不要说出神的名字，所以他们用“天”代替“神。”天国”就是”神的国”。
耶稣所提到的国度就是神应许大卫王的国度，说：“你的家和你的国必在我的面前建立。你的国位也必坚定，直到永远”（撒母耳记下7: 16 ）。不幸的，大卫王朝在地上的国度于西元前586被毁灭了。犹太人相信神向大卫的应许，所以他们期待神在祂所定的时间会派一位君王。他们称这位将来要出现的君王为“弥赛亚。”
地狱。这个词的意思可以分：（1） 审判前的情况。 （2）审判后的情况。
人子. 在四個福音裡，耶穌平常稱自己為人子，為了要表示祂是500年前但以理在異象所看到的一位超自然的人（但以理書 7:13）。異象裡的“人子”駕著天雲來，他的國度是永遠的。耶穌被審判的時候引用此經文對大祭司說“後來你們要看見人子坐在那全能者的右邊，駕著天上的雲降臨”（太26:64）。在末日祂（人子）會審判人類（太25:32）。他跟神一樣有贖罪的權柄 （馬可福音2:10）,因此他跟神平等的，也就是神。
（b） 末日的那一天，聖經鼓勵我們說“我們就要和主永遠同在”（帖撒羅尼前書4:17）。耶穌會對信徒說“來承受那創世以來為你們所預備的國（太25:34），就是耶穌為我們預備的地方（約14:2）。彼得告訴我們看得見的天和地會被毀滅，然後神會造“新天新地”（彼得後書3:10-13）。神會“擦去一切的眼淚，不再有死亡，也不再有悲哀，痛苦“（啟示錄21: 1-4）。信徒說“我要上天堂”的意思是“我要得到復活的神體永遠主在神創造的天和地。 ”
天國。在馬太福音4:17,耶穌說“天國近了。”在馬可福音1:15，耶穌說“ 神的國近了”。這兩句的意思是一樣的。馬可用“神的國”, 因為他的讀者是非猶太人，要他們了解耶穌的意思。馬太的讀者是猶太人。猶太人有習慣不要說出神的名字，所以他們用“天”代替“神。”天國”就是”神的國”。
地獄。這個詞的意思可以分：（1） 審判前的情況。 （2）審判後的情況。
培養也有幾些階段。 （1） 承認耶穌為主與受洗的時候，要強調的是確定信仰的基礎（靠神的應許而不靠情感），和明白信徒在主裡面的地位。 （2）在地一個月內，要(a)了解聖經的組織辦法和大概的內容，(b)聖經專門子,(c)開始日日讀經和禱告的習慣,(d)告訴親人你成為基督徒的事情。 （3）接下來要體會神學基本觀念：(a)人類學：神按著他的形象造人，但是人違背神。 (b)神型學：創造萬物的神是三位一體的神：天父，兒子主耶穌基督，聖靈。可參考使徒信經。 (c)拯救學：因神愛世人，他差遣耶穌犧牲生命贖罪。信而受洗的人必然得救。 (d)成聖學：拯救我們之後，聖靈施新生命遞給我們，改變我們的思想與動作。我們的部分是日日悔改，求神改變我們。 (e)教會學：信耶穌的人構成全世界上的團體，來一起崇拜與吃聖餐，彼此支持。 (f)末日學：包括我們個人生命的結束與上天堂，和全世界被審判的那一天。 （4）高級研究：參考此網上的神學課程。
樂園。這個詞在新約聖經中出現了三次。（1）保羅看見異象的時候，他説他“被提到樂園裏。”（哥林多後書12：4），所以這樂園乃是指一個已經存在的地方。樂園一詞翻譯自希臘文的 paradeisos,（英文paradise）. (這個詞是從伊朗文接過來的，意思是“花園”) （2）耶穌在十字架上的時候向跟他在旁邊的犯人說 “今日你要同我在樂園裏了”（路加福音 23：43），所以樂園也是我們一過世後要去的地方。（3）樂園也是信徒永遠與主同在的地方。耶穌說 “得勝的， 我必將神樂園中生命樹的果子賜給他吃”（啓示錄 2：7）。舊約的希臘文譯本使用paradeisos 翻譯伊甸的園。伊甸園後原來有命樹 ，但是因爲人違背了神， 所以人也失掉他們跟神的美好關係，神就不准許那時候的人吃其上的果子。但信耶穌的人跟神的關係復和了，因此死後會到天堂，可以在那裡得著生命樹所給的永恆生命。（謝謝David）
樂園。這個詞在新約聖經中出現了三次。（1）保羅看見異象的時候，他説他“被提到樂園裏。”（哥林多後書12：4），所以這樂園乃是指一個已經存在的地方。樂園一詞翻譯自希臘文的 paradeisos,（英文paradise）. (這個詞是從伊朗文接過來的，意思是“花園”) （2）耶穌在十字架上的時候向跟他在旁邊的犯人說 “今日你要同我在樂園裏了”（路加福音 23：43），所以樂園也是我們一過世後要去的地方。（3）樂園也是信徒永遠與主同在的地方。耶穌說 “得勝的， 我必將神樂園中生命樹的果子賜給他吃”（啓示錄 2：7）。舊約的希臘文譯本使用paradeisos 翻譯伊甸的園。伊甸園後原來有命樹 ，但是因爲人違背了神， 所以人也失掉他們跟神的美好關係，神就不准許那時候的人吃其上的果子。但信耶穌的人跟神的關係復和了，因此死後會到天堂，可以在那裡得著生命樹所給的永恆生命。（謝謝David）