The Spread of Christianity through the Ages
A snap shot of World Missions Highlights
(For more detail, see the ten chapters in this site’s church history part three)
1. From the Book of Acts to 1800
The events are listed by centuries. You can look up a country or person by using the Find feature on your computer (CTRL-F). The numbers at the end of entries are years, sometimes approximate.
The Book of Acts includes contacts with Palestine, Syria, Greece, Italy, Ethiopia, and today’s Turkey, as well as the other countries listed in Acts 2.
Paul’s missionary journeys in Turkey and Greece took place round the years 46, 50, and 53-57. Paul is thought to have gone to Spain later.
Some Christians in India, called the Thomas Christians, believe they were started by Christ’s apostle Thomas around the year 52.
Christianity has spread throughout the Roman Empire, despite persecution.
A missionary named Frumentius is sent to organize the believers in Ethiopia. Christianity is brought to Armenia in 314.
Patrick goes to evangelize Ireland. 432.
The Roman Empire loses control of Europe, and because the invaders destroy the existing churches and oppress the Christians, Europe will have to be evangelized over again.
The King of the Franks (Clovis) accepts Christianity. 486.
Christians from Ireland begin to re-evangelize England.
Pope Gregory I sends missionaries (including Boniface) to England. 596
The King of Spain accepts Christianity, 596
Alopen leads a group of Nestorian Christians to China. 635 (In Chinese, the church is called Jing Jiao, the pure teaching.)
Muslims capture most of the middle east, and the Christians there decrease year by year.
EIGHTH CENTURY The pope sends missionaries (including Boniface) to evangelize the Germans.
Charlemagne forces conquered tribes (such as the Saxons) to accept Christianity.
The emperor of China (Song dynasty) oppresses foreign religions (Christianity and Buddhism).
845 The Eastern Orthodox church sends two missionaries (Cyril and Methodius) to the Slavic people; they devise an alphabet for them. 863
The King of Denmark accepts Christianity. 945
The King of Norway accepts Christianity 994
The ruler of the Russian people declares they will accept Christianity (eastern orthodox) 998
the King of Sweden accepts Christianity.
New orders of traveling monks (Dominicans 1216, Franciscans 1223, Augustinians 1256) preach throughout Europe, and after 1500 will evangelize in other countries.
A missionary from Italy (John of Montecorvino) comes to China (Yuan dynasty) 1294. The Nestorians are also allowed to worship openly again.
Six thousand Chinese are baptized by 1305 into the Catholic church (In Chinese, the Catholic Church is called Tian Zhu Jiao, Heavenly Lord Teaching). Later, China again prohibits Christianity (1368, early Ming Dynasty).
King of Kongo is baptized (1482) as Portuguese bring clergy with them when they set up trading stations in Africa.
The Spanish Conquerors of the southern Americas bring clergy with them and a number of native Americans become Catholic, starting from 1519, when Cortes conquers Mexico.
A Roman Catholic group, the Jesuits, is founded in 1540, and they evangelize in the countries touched by European expansion, as do the Dominicans and Franciscans.
Jesuits enter India in 1542; a number of the existing Christian groups are brought under Catholic administration by 1599. Jesuits including Francis Xavier enter Japan around 1549.
Catholic missionaries (notably the Dominicans) arrive in the Philippines. 1565.
Portuguese establish a base at Macao (southern China), bringing clergy and building churches. (Macao is returned to China in 1999).
A Jesuit named Matteo Ricci enters China in 1583; he lives in Beijing from 1600 to 1610 (late Ming Dynasty).
Japan declares Christianity to be illegal in 1614 (it is legalized again after 1868).
Emigrants from England set up Protestant Christian churches in North America (Jamestown, Virginia, settled in 1607 favors the Church of England; Puritans establish the Congregational church in Massachusetts from 1620.
John Elliott, one of many who evangelize among the American Indians, begins his 50 years of work in 1631.
The emperor of China (Qing Dynasty) proclaims religious toleration in 1692 (how to pronounce Q in Chinese).
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY The Chinese emperor in 1706 forbad all groups except the Jesuits to work in China (because the pope had forbidden the Jesuit’s acceptance of ancestor worship).
Two German Pietist missionaries arrive in India in 1706, sent by the King of Denmark. This begins Protestant mission work outside the European colonies. Moravians (another group of German Pietists) send missionaries to South America, Africa and Greenland starting from 1732.
William Carey, an English Baptist, advocated foreign mission work by English Protestants and took his family and two other missionary families to India in 1793.
Korean scholars send representatives to Beijing China to receive baptism. 1784.
The Jesuits were oppressed in most countries in 1773 (restored in 1814).
Nineteenth Century Missions,
called The Great Century, Often described as the period 1792 to 1914, because:
1792: Baptist William Carey founds a mission society and goes to India,
starting the massive involvement of English-speaking Protestants in mission.
1914: Beginning of World War I brings mission work to a temporary halt.
Code: Protestant , Catholic, Background,
(Initials are explained below)
|1792 French republic, then Napoleon1795 LMS founded1797 Netherlands Mission Society
1799 CMS founded
|1784 Koreans send to China for books about Christianity1792 William Carey leaves for India||1787 Sierra Leone founded|
|1804 British Bible society1808 Britain ends slave trade1814 Napoleon defeated
1814 Jesuits restored (1773), Roman Catholic missions have new start
|1807 Morrison, a Protestant from England, arrives in Macau to learn Chinese, later translates the Bible into Chinese11812 Judson to Burma1814 India gets native Anglican bishop||1818 Zulu empire1822 Liberia founded||1806 Haystack meeting, leads to:1810 ABCFM1816 ABS founded
1824 Finney revivals inspire many to become missionaries
|1829 Greeks independent1830 revolts against established governments1833 Britain ends slavery
1848 revolts against established governments
|1839 Opium War (China)1847 Lutherans to China|
|1854-6 Crimean War (against Russia)1855 YWCA1861 Italy independent
1868 Founding of White Fathers (later, White Sisters)
1870 French-German war
1870 Papal infallibility announced
1871 Germany unites
|1853-62 Tai Ping rebellion in China1854 Japan/US treaty1856-60 2nd Opium War in China
1859 Church of England to Japan (Williams)
1865 Hudson Taylor starts CIM: first “Faith mission”
1868 Meiji emperor of Japan, Christianity legal in Japan
|`||1856 Rufus Anderson writes about 3-self1861 Women’s Union Missionary Society1865 US ends slavery
1888 SVM, John Mott
1890 TEAM founded
1893 Moody holds meetings that inspire many to missions
|1884 Colonial Conference1890 Brussels conf ends slave trade||1888 C&MA founded; to China1895 Japan beats China1895 LCMS to India||1893 SIM1895 AIM||1894 Zwemer to Arabia|
|1910 World Missionary Conference||1900 Boxers1912 LCMS to China (Arndt)||1908 Belgian Congo||1999 Maryknoll mission organization founded|
1 The Protestant Church in Chinese is called Ji Du Jiao, “Christ Teaching.”
Initials explained Below are: Initials, Slavery dates, LCMS involvement
Initials of the 19th Century Mission Groups:
ABCFM — American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (1810, from the “haystack meeting” at Williams College, Massachusetts)
ABS — American Bible Society
AIM — Africa Inland Mission (faith mission, est. 1895)
Basel mission (Switzerland, Reformed, 1815)
CIM — China Inland Mission (founded by Hudson Taylor in 1865)
Now called OMF (Overseas Missionary Fellowship)
CMS — Church Missionary Society (founded 1799; Anglican-evangelical)
LMS — London Missionary Society (multi-denominational, founded 1795)
Rhenish (German, Lutheran, 1828)
SIM — Sudan Interior Mission (faith mission, est. 1893)
SPCK — Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (Anglican, founded 1698)
SPG — Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (Anglican, 1701)
SVM — Student Volunteer Movement “evangelize the world in this generation” (1888, John Mott)
TEAM — The Evangelical Alliance Mission” (founded in U. S. in 1890)
1808 – Britain makes slave trade illegal
1833 – slavery abolished in British Empire
1865 – U. S. Constitutional amendment against slavery.
1890 – Brussels conference: int’l agreement to abolish slave trade.
LCMS Mission Work during the “Great Century” (1792 to 1914)
1895. LCMS to India. 5 people working in India with a German mission society left it and became LCMS; LCMS had just formed a mission board in 1893; accepted them, brought them to USA for commissioning, then sent them back to India. They worked with Tamil-speaking people in the South-east of India. Two of them were named in the reference material: Karl Gustav Theodor Näther and Franz Edward Mohn. Näther died in India of bubonic plague in 1904. Mohn continued ‘til 1913, then became a pastor in S. Dakota, died in 1925. The India Evangelical Lutheran church was organized in 1958.
1912. LCMS to China. Missionary Arndt from Concordia St. Paul becomes first LCMS missionary to China. Edward Louis Arndt was an ordained LCMS pastor, teaching biology at CSP. Because he had a heart for reaching the people of China, he formed a mission society of local Twin Cities churches and individuals, and they sent him to China in 1912. In 1917 the LCMS Mission Board took up sponsorship of his work. (source: Lutheran Cyclopedia)
TWENTIETH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT (in progress)
BOOKS FOR FURTHER REFERENCE
Neill, Stephen. A History of Christian Missions. (Middlesex England, Penguin Books: 1964 and later reprints.)
Rudnick, Milton L., Speaking the gospel through the Ages. (St. Louis, Concordia Publishing House: 1984.
Tucker, Ruth A., From Jerusalem to Irian Jaya, a Biographical History of Christian Missions (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan Publishing House: 1983). Includes one-to-three page vignettes of the life and work of individual missionaries.